Botanical Name: Araucaria heterophylla
Norfolk Island pine is an evergreen conifer that makes a handsome house plant. Its long, horizontal branches are densely covered with short, soft needles that become darker as the plant ages.
This plant not a true pine, it just looks like one. It also gets its name from Norfolk Island -- a small island in the Pacific between Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia.
In its native habitat, Norfolk Island pine can grow up to 200 ft (60 m) tall. As a house plant, you can expect it to reach about 3-6 ft (90 cm - 1.8 m). Slow-growing, it will take several years to reach this height.
To understand how to care for these plants, remember their native environment, where they enjoy moderate temperatures, moist air and bright light. Dry air, dry soil and low light can cause the needles to drop -- and they won't grow back. They need a little extra attention, but they're worth it. Norfolk pine trees will live a long time with good care.
Raise the humidity. Dry air will cause the needles to become dry and fall off. Keep your plant away from heat/AC vents. This Pacific Island native loves to be misted with room-temperature water. Or use a room humidifier to add moisture.
Keep soil moist. Growing Norfolk Island pine trees are thirsty, so check the soil often during the growing season. Yellow needles are typically caused by soil that's either too dry or soggy. Aim to keep it lightly moist at all times.
Repot in spring. This plant is slow-growing, especially indoors. Move it into a pot 1 size larger every 3 years or when roots are visible on top of the soil. When the tree grows to more than 3 ft (90 cm) tall, top dress instead.
How to Top Dress: Remove the top 2-3 inches of soil and replace with fresh soil every couple years. Take care not to harm any roots that may be near the surface.
Don't prune Norfolk pine. Never cut off the top or trim the sides of this plant. It doesn't need to be shaped at all. You can remove any lower branches that die, using sharp pruners to prevent tearing the stems.
Not many house plant pests bother Norfolk pines. Mealybugs are the most common. Watch for white, cotton-like areas on leaves and stems and treat any infestation immediately.
Origin: Norfolk Island
Height: 6 ft (1.8 m)
Light: Bright light with some full sun.
Water: Keep the soil evenly moist in the spring and summer, lightly moist in winter.
Humidity: Moderate room humidity.
Temperature: Average room temperatures 60-75°F, 16-24°C.
Soil: Any good potting mix.
Fertilizer: Feed every 2 weeks spring through fall with a balanced liquid fertilizer diluted by half.
Propagation: Can be grown from seed, although it will take several years to reach the size of a purchased plant.
If you move your plant outdoors for the summer, keep it shaded from hot sun. Check the soil often and keep it moist.
Norfolk pine is frost tender. In fact, it doesn't like the cold at all. Bring it back indoors if the temperature drops below 50°F/10°C.
You'll find Norfolk Island pine trees for sale from online nurseries and some garden centers in spring and summer. Small trees are sometimes decorated and sold around Christmastime.